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¤ Home » Certification Board (ICB) » Application Guidelines » Paper Guidelines
This guideline has been prepared to answer many of the questions you may have regarding the writing of your paper for CVS Certification. The basic function of this is to enable a CVS Board to judge the applicant's written communication skills and knowledge of Value Engineering methodology.
The CVS applicant must be the primary author and preferably the only author of the paper. If co-authored, the paper must be accompanied with a statement from all authors indicating that the CVS author contributed the majority of the effort and idea. Once the length and authorship criteria are verified, the paper will be examined for its qualities by the Certification Board.
All papers must be written for audiences of Value practitioners and /or Value Managers and will be judged on relevance, ingenuity, originality and clarity. Authors of certification papers need not be members of the society. The paper must be originally written specially for the purpose of Certification application and must not have been previously presented or published.
Depending upon the presentation styles, professional environment and nature of the material, a paper may be composed and organised in many different ways. The paper is expected to be type written in english. If it is written in any other langauge, it must be accompanied with a translation. Every effort is made to promptly evaluate a paper once it is received by the Certification Board.
If you have never written a paper, you have missed one of the most worthwhile and stimulating experiences one can have. There is a great deal of personal satisfaction in the recognition that goes with the authorship and sharing worthwhile information with your colleagues. Remember that your audience will primarily be practitioners in the value field.
The Research Oriented Approach
It is recommended that the applicant use the Research Oriented approach for the Value paper. This approach reports a subject research or experience for exchanging technical information, facts or ideas current and important to the field. The subject matter may be general or it can describe a specific new discovery or technique or a change in existing conditions. The writer of the paper has the burden of capturing the attention of the audience in the beginning and keeping it throughout. The reader must be given all that is required about the subject.
The Length of the paper must be between 2500 and 5000 words
- Abstract on the first page. An abstract is a condensed version of a longer piece of writing summarizing or highlighting the major points covered in the paper. Abstacts are generally two to three paragraphs long and should not exceed 300 words.
The abstract helps the reader by allowing a review of the content in an abbreviated form. If the subject is pertinent, the reader will want to read the complete paper. The abstract is however NOT an introduction to the paper.
A. A descriptive abstract tells what the paper investigated but not the conclusion.
B. An informative abstract tells what the paper investigated and how the subject was investigated. It also gives the paper's conclusion. Informative abstracts allow other researchers to grasp the essentials of the paper without having to read it. For CVS applicants, either type of abstract is acceptable.
- Organize your writing in a simple and logical outline. Headings and sub-headings are a useful guide to your readers.
- Illustrations are an important part of the presentation. These should illustrate what the text describes. Please refer to the section on illustrations in this guide.
- Vocabulary and style should be kept simple. Words used in your paper should be those found in the Webster's Collegiate Dictionary or equivalent. If you find it necessary to use words or acronyms that seem unfamiliar to the readers such as technical terminology, explain them parenthically in simple terms.
- Methodology. Fully describe the methods employed in your research or investigation and state all the significant results.
- Historical facts. To tell what the paper investigated should be kept to a minimum, unless the paper is describing the state-of-the-art of technology.
- Priviledged information. Private communications or confidential documents that cannot be verified should not be cited or included in support of any discussion.
The Body of the paper must include
- An introduction stating the purpose of the project, background information or theory.
- A discussion which includes the essential information required to understand your methodology, conclusions, and / or recommendations. Correlation with previous or future work should be stated.
- An analysis of results and conclusions.
- Generalization about the significance of the subject.
- References. Explicit acknowledgement should be made to any related work you have previously published, or to the work of others. These references should be mentioned and titled "Bibliography" at the conclusion of your paper.
Things to remember
Interesting : The subject must be of interest to value practitioners.
Original : Originality is required, aside from the use of basic charts or tables. A paper must not have been presented previously. Borrowed material should as a matter of courtesy, and in compliance with copyright laws, be cleary identified as to source.
Clear : Papers must be clearly written. Papers should avoid repetitious wording and verbosity.
Non - Commercial : Papers must be free of commercialism. Trade names should be used only where their ommission would misconstrue meanings.
Fair : Don't make damaging comparisions with competetive methods, processes or products.
Balanced : State the disadvantages or limitations of the process or the method that you are describing. This will help prevent misapplication and render your paper more believable.
Please proof read carefully
- Typing : For best results use an electronic typewriter or word processor with 10 characters per inch. Use a simple type face such as a Prestige or Roman.
- Heading : A main heading should be typed in capital letters. Sub headings should be underlined.
- Bibliography : The bibliography must be typed at the end of the paper following the conclusion. The heading for this section should be titled "Bibliography".
- Footnotes : Each footnote should be inserted at the bottom of the page in which the reference appears. Designate each footnote with a number either as a superior figure or in paranthesis which corresponds to it's reference.
- Illustrations : All illustrations should be identified in the text by figure, chart or table number. The same identification should be on the illustration on the figure. If possible, reduce the size to fit the text where it is mentioned. If reduced, be sure that the lettering is legible after reduction. Include only those photographs, line drawings and charts which functionally add to the clarity of the paper. Ensure that all illustrations are sharp, clear and legible at the copy level.
Handling of papers
Upon receipt, papers become the property of INVEST. The Certification Board reserves the right to publish the paper in any INVEST publication and /or recommend that the author present the paper at the annual INVEST Conference.
- Send the original paper plus three copies. Include one complete original set of graphs, photographs, illustrations and any other material that goes with the paper.
- Reinforce your material to prevent damage in transit. A peice of cardboard inserted in the envelope will prevent bending and creasing your art work.
The following guidelines are to be used as a general direction for compiling the paper.
- Title Page
Include : Title, author's name and signature, date of authorship.
- Abstract : A brief description of the purpose, intent and conclusion of the paper.
- Introduction :
Considering a broad point of view, what are the relevance and advantages of similar considerations to the national and /or international economy, technology, regional and local industries, etc. What prompted you to choose this particular topic? What are the possible applications of the results of similar work? What are the benefits of such implementation? (Within 300 words).
Further it will be helpful to the reader to understand the background of the writer and how the paper evolved. Statements such as, "the author was a member of a team assigned to study cost information flows and reporting procedure for the XXX corporation. This paper is the result of the techniques used during this study" will always make a good impression.
- Body of the Paper :
Describe the procedures for data collection, idea development, observations, surveys or whatever forms the basis of your paper. In your own words, present and discuss the more interesting information pertaining to the area of your paper. Divide all the relavant materials into logical topics and sub-topics. In your own words, discuss each topic and sub-topic clearly. All statements of fact should have reference number from the list of the references where they can be found in detail. Do not use jargon or shop talk. Write for others in Value Discipline.
Demerits will be applied to incorrect facts, improper causes and effects, emotional statements and philosophical observations. If there are any illustrations in the paper, be sure to refer to them at the appropriate place in the text and indicate clearly what the illustration is meant to show. An important facet of the paper is to highlight your contribution to the organization, arrangement and analysis of the information, including techniques, flow charts, computer programmes, organizational charts and other material that you have developed or modified as a part of this independent paper.
Describe all processes, procedures, equipment and theory very clearly. Pay attention to spelling and syntax. Generally short and concise sentences and paragraphs contribute to clarity. Using the logical structure of your paper as a guide, develop and label each section. The label should describe the contents of that segment of the paper. Further, sections should be grouped into chapters and labelled accordingly. For large papers it may be appropriate to have several sub-sections for each section.
- Illustrations (Tables and Graphs). Include graphic or tabular presentation of data, ideas and equipment to clarify the topic of each sectionn of the paper. Copies of illustrations from books and magazine should rarely be used and only with the written permission of the copyright owner. The page number, illustration number and descriptive title should be placed clearly on the page. All necessary information to interpret the illustration should be included in the illustation sheet.
- Conclusions. From the results of the paper, what general comments can be made regarding the suitability of a technique, equipment, procedures, etc? Where can these results be used? Based on your introductioin and data cited earlier, what would one expect when implementing your recommendations? On which general area will the follow up work be concentrated? Why? All conclusions should be based on ground work already established in the body of the paper. Do not introduce any new material here.
- Specific Reference
List articles, books or reports that you have read for this paper and that you believe are specifically relevant.
List all individuals, companies and agencies that have provided useful advice, service, material or information for the presentation of your paper.
On rare occasioins an appendix may be justified. Appendices include data and information important to your conclusions, but which could detract from the free flow of explanation of the main body of the paper. Attach to your paper any materials that you feel support the paper.